Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

Encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorised parties can read it. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is an encryption algorithm for encrypting a confidential text into a decryptable format.

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Amp (A)

One of the units in electricity is current (I), which is measured in amps. An amp is the quantity of electricity in a wire. When colocation customers purchase a rack within a data centre, the full racks are usually provisioned as either 8A, 16A or 32A.

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Blade Server

A blade server is a server chassis that houses numerous electronic circuit boards, known as server blades. Each blade is a server, which results blade servers processing more power in less rack space, streamlining cabling and reducing power consumption.

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Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) / Autonomous System (AS) number / Provider Independent (PI) space

In most cases, a user will take a small allocation of IP address space from a single network-access provider from which to assign addresses to their equipment. If a user requires a very large allocation of address space or needs their address space to be portable, a user would usually request PI address space and their own AS number.

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C4L Business Partner

A C4L Business Partner is most commonly a reseller of C4L’s products and services. Additionally, a C4L Business Partner can also be a Technology Partner, which are businesses that assist C4L in delivering products and services such as equipment suppliers or software vendors.

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Caged Suite

A caged suite is a cage that goes round a dedicated area of a customer’s space in a data centre. The caged suits can offer heightened security in a high quality data centre environment.

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Carbon Footprint

The amount of carbon dioxide and/or emissions of other greenhouse gases (such as methane and nitrous oxide) released into the atmosphere as a result of the activities of a particular individual, organization, or community.

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Cloud

Cloud computing can be defined as a network of remote servers hosted on the internet and used to store, manage, and process data in place of local servers or personal computers. Cloud computing allows a user to store and access data and programmes over the internet instead of on their computer's hard drive.

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Colocation

Colocation is often considered the best strategy for business as it refers to the practice of housing servers and devices in a professional data centre. By removing servers and devices from office space and storing them in a dedicated centre, the benefits are endless, including access to economies of scale, advanced infrastructure, greater bandwidth, lower latency, specialist services/systems and constant security/protection.

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Connectivity

Connectivity allows a user to connect to the internet. C4L offers two types of high speed connectivity, business connectivity and data centre connectivity. C4L’s data centre connectivity runs on a privately owned 1-100Gb coreTX network. C4L’s business connectivity allows users to connect to the internet directly from their office.

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Dark Fibre

Fibre optic cables (see fibre optic) transmit information in the form of light pulses, so when light pulses are not being transmitted, it is referred to as dark fibre. Dark fibre is optical fibre that is not currently being used.

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Data Centre

A data centre is a dedicated place where companies can store and operate their IT infrastructure. Some companies may only require a simple cage or a rack of equipment, however other companies may need a room housing many cabinets, depending on the scale of their operation.

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Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS)

A DDoS attack is when a multitude of compromised systems attack a single target, thereby causing denial of service for users of the targeted system. The system essentially shuts down because of the flood of incoming messages, which results in a denial of service to legitimate users.

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Downtime

When a system is unavailable for a period of time, it is referred to as downtime.

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Elastic Cloud Computing

Elastic computing is a concept in cloud computing in which computing resources can be scaled up and down easily by the cloud service provider.

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Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM)

Ethernet in the First Mile gives you a tough and reliable high-speed business internet connection.

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Fibre Optic

Fibre optic is a technology that uses glass threads (fibres) to transmit data. A fibre optic cable consists of multiple glass threads which are capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves.

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File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

The FTP is one of the earliest and most widely supported methods for uploading and downloading files over the Internet. A large choice of both free and commercial FTP clients exist across almost all operating systems offering a multitude of different features.

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Fully Managed Service Wrap

A service wrap is a set of non-core services which are bundled with a core service to form a complete package of services that are sold. For instance, if C4L sell a Cloud Computing service, the service wrap includes the governance of that service, such as service monitoring tools.

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Gigabits per second (Gbps)

Gbps stands for Gigabits per second (billions of bits per second). Gbps refers to the measurement of data transfer speeds.

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Greenfield

A Greenfield is considered a new project, which lacks any constraints imposed by prior work.

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Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)

A server will typically expect to send and receive all traffic to and from the rest of the Internet via a single router address. Of course, using just a single router, no matter how resilient a device that may be, does expose a single point of failure in the design. One way to counter this is through the use of Hot Standby Router Protocol, a redundancy protocol by Cisco for the purpose of allowing multiple routers to present a single router address.

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Hypervisor

A hypervisor is a piece of computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines. When a hypervisor is running one or more virtual machines on a computer, the computer is defined as a host machine.

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Infrastructure

IT infrastructure refers to the key elements required for the existence, operation and management of an enterprise IT environment. A standard IT infrastructure consists of hardware, software, network and human users.

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Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

Infrastructure as a Service is a provision model in which an organisation outsources the equipment used to support operations, including storage, hardware, servers and networking components. A service provider, like C4L, owns the equipment and is responsible for housing, running and maintaining it.

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Interconnect

Interconnect describes a connection between two locations. Access to the Internet is not provided on these connections, they simply privately connect separate locations where our customers have a presence.

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Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI)

iSCSI is an internet protocol based storage networking standard for linking data storage facilities, developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force. By carrying SCSI commands over IP networks, iSCSI is used to facilitate data transfers over intranets and to manage storage over long distances.

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Internet Telephony Service Provider (ITSP)

An ITSP offers digital telecommunications services based on voice over internet protocol (VOIP) that are provisioned via the Internet. An ITSP allows their customers to have the ability to make phone calls over the public internet.

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IP (Internet Protocol)

Since the 1970s, Internet Protocol is the primary network protocol used on the internet. IP supports unique addressing for computers on a network.

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IP address / IPv6 address

Each host which is directly accessible on the public Internet is given its own address that is globally unique. Collections of addresses are grouped together in to networks, which form the smallest parts of an addressing hierarchy containing progressively larger networks. At each level, routers on the Internet know what paths to take to reach other networks, and so through a series of hops, any host on the Internet should be able to reach any other host.

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IP Transit

Internet Protocol (IP) transit is the service of allowing network traffic to cross a computer network.

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Kilobits per second (Kbps) Gbps

Kbps stands for Kilobits per second (thousands of bits per second). Kbps refers to the measurement of data transfer speeds.

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Latency

Latency is a synonym for delay and is an expression of how much time it takes for a packet of data to get from one designated point to another.

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Leased Line

A leased line is a dedicated, fixed-bandwidth, symmetric data connection. The bandwidth within a leased line has been reserved solely for a single customers use. Leased lines are symmetric as they can upload data at the same fast speed at which they can download data too.

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Mb/Gb Commit

Billing based on average bandwidth utilised in an outbound and inbound direction during a month, measured in bits.

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MB/GB/TB Transfer

Billing based on volume of data sent and received during a month, measured in bytes.

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Megabits per second (Mbps)

Mbps stands for Megabits per second (millions of bits per second). Mbps refers to the measurement of data transfer speeds.

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Multihoming

Multihoming is a configuration describing a host computer with two or more network addresses. Multihoming also refers to the process of connecting a single network to two ISP networks, or connection a single computer to two or more network or network segments.

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Multiplexing

A method by which multiple analogue message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium.

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Network

A network is a series of points or connection points interconnected by communication paths. Networks can interconnect with other networks and contain subnetworks.

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Network File System (NFS)

The NFS is a client/server system that permits users to gain access to files across a network and then treat them as if they resided in a local file directory. For example, if you were using a computer linked to a second computer via NFS, you could access files on the second computer as if they resided in a directory on the first computer. Typically, operating systems either come with NFS client support built in as standard, or at least the operating system vendor themselves provide such support as an add on.

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Network Operations Centre (NOC)

Our C4L NOC is visible to all customers of C4L and provides you with up to date service information. A NOC is one or more locations from which network monitoring and control, or network management, is exercised over a computer, telecommunication or satellite network.

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Packet

A packet is a small amount of data sent over a network. Any time data is received from the Internet, it comes to your computer in the form of lots of small packets.

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Partial Transit

As opposed to full transit which promises the delivery of traffic to and from all internet destinations, partial IP transit is routed via internet exchanges and peering partnerships rather than via tier 1 providers. Partial bandwidth gives you bandwidth for a much smaller cost.

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Physical Dedicated Server

A physical dedicated server is a server that is only be accessed by one person. As opposed to cloud resources which can be used only as required, dedicated servers guarantee 100% of the resources contained in that physical server are reserved and available for that user whether needed or not.

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Point of Presence (PoP)

A point of presence is the point at which two or more different networks or communication devices build a connection with each other.

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Power Feeds

A rack in a data centre will either have a single-feed supply or dual-feed supply of power. This refers to whether or not there are multiple power distribution units coming in to the rack from separate power sources.

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Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

The PSTN is the wired phone system over which landline telephone calls are made. The PSTN is based on copper wires carrying analogue voice data. To connect one phone to another, the phone call is routed through numerous switches operating on a local, regional, national or international level. The connection established between the two phones is called a circuit.

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Q-in-Q

In a metro Ethernet environment, the access layer of the network most commonly uses virtual network tags to isolate individual networks. When a service provider uses this technology for their own purposes of segmenting individual customers, this usually prohibits those customers from using the same technology in any portion of their operations which come in contact with that service provider's network.

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Redundancy

In computing, redundancy refers to duplicating devices that are used for backup purposes. The goal of redundancy is to prevent or recover from the failure of a specific component or system.

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Remote Hands Service

If physical intervention is necessary to resolve a problem or accomplish a task, then Remote Hands service can sometimes be the most efficient way to resolve the problem. The Remote Hands service is designed to provide quick on-site resources should physical intervention to equipment become necessary if a customer is unable to attend personally.

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Sender Policy Framework (SPF)

SPF is an email validation system that involves verifying the sender’s IP address. SPF is designed to prevent email spam by detecting email spoofing.

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Service Level Agreements (SLAs)

A service level agreement is part of a service contract where a service is formally defined. In practise, the term SLA is sometimes used to refer to the contracted delivery time (of the service or performance).

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SIP Trunking

SIP Trunking is the use of voice over IP (VoIP) to facilitate the connection of a private branch exchange to the internet. The internet replaces the conventional telephone trunk, allowing businesses to communicate with fixed and mobile telephone subscribers worldwide.

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SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP/Secure FTP)

The SSH File Transfer Protocol is a computing network protocol for accessing and managing files on remote file systems. Although many of the implementation details are quite dissimilar to FTP, the SSH File Transfer Protocol aims to achieve the same type of functionality, allowing for the uploading and downloading of files over the Internet.

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Tier 1 Transit

Unless requiring Internet Transit in the scale of tens of gigabits per second, most organisations will be not be able to acquire connectivity directly from a Tier 1 provider. Some Tier 2 providers offer a pseudo-direct connection to a Tier 1 provider from their network, using a portion of their own connection to the particular upstream provider for this.

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Tier Rating

Data centres are rated in a four tier system that provides a simple and effective means for identifying different data centre site infrastructure design builds. The tier rating is called The Uptime Institute’s tiered classification system, and it is used as the industry standard to identify common benchmarking standard needs.

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U

A U is a measurement of rack space. Specifically, a unit of measure that describes the height of equipment designed to mount in a rack. One rack unit is often referred to as 1U, 2 rack units is referred to as 2U etc. All standard C4L racks will accommodate equipment which is 19 inches/480 millimetres in width, (the standard rack-mountable equipment width).

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Virtual Private Data Centre

A virtual private data centre is a type of cloud service model. If somebody requests a VPDC, than a private cloud vendor provides the entire infrastructure over the cloud, combining all the different cloud services available as a single solution. That means the customer then pays for it as a service, which can be scaled up and down on demand.

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Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

VoIP is essentially a phone service over the internet. VoIP technology allows telephone calls to be made over the internet. VoIP calls are often more cost effective than traditional long distance telephone calls, however there is a greater potential for dropped calls and poorer voice quality when the underlying network links are in high usage/

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Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM)

WDM offers multiple pairs of sending and receiving apparatus, each using a different wavelength of light. This technique employs devices at either end of a link which take multiple inputs at different light wavelengths and combine them down one fibre pair

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